Resources

Scientific accuracy is important to us. Here's what we've referenced on our site.

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1. Koumans, Emilia H., Maya Sternberg, Carol Bruce, Geraldine McQuillan, Juliette Kendrick, Madeline Sutton, and Lauri E. Markowitz. "The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the United States, 2001–2004; associations with symptoms, sexual behaviors, and reproductive health." Sexually transmitted diseases 34, no. 11 (2007): 864-869.

2. Coudray, Makella S., and Purnima Madhivanan. "Bacterial vaginosis—A brief synopsis of the literature." European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 245 (2020): 143-148.

3. Foxman, Betsy. "Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs." The American journal of medicine 113, no. 1 (2002): 5-13.

4. Denning, David W., Matthew Kneale, Jack D. Sobel, and Riina Rautemaa-Richardson. "Global burden of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a systematic review." The Lancet Infectious Diseases 18, no. 11 (2018): e339-e347.

Meet Your Microbiome

1. Aballéa, Samuel, Florent Guelfucci, Julian Wagner, Amine Khemiri, Jean-Paul Dietz, Jack Sobel, and Mondher Toumi. "Subjective health status and health-related quality of life among women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC) in Europe and the USA." Health and quality of life outcomes 11, no. 1 (2013): 1-13.

2. Amabebe, Emmanuel, and Dilly OC Anumba. "The vaginal microenvironment: the physiologic role of lactobacilli." Frontiers in medicine 5 (2018): 181.

3. Atashili, Julius, Charles Poole, Peter M. Ndumbe, Adaora A. Adimora, and Jennifer S. Smith. "Bacterial vaginosis and HIV acquisition: a meta-analysis of published studies." AIDS (London, England) 22, no. 12 (2008): 1493.

4. Badr, A. A., and G. Shaikh. "Recurrent urinary tract infections management in women." Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 13, no. 8 (2013): 359-67.

5. Brotman, Rebecca M., Mark A. Klebanoff, Tonja R. Nansel, Kai F. Yu, William W. Andrews, Jun Zhang, and Jane R. Schwebke. "Bacterial vaginosis assessed by gram stain and diminished colonization resistance to incident gonococcal, chlamydial, and trichomonal genital infection." Journal of Infectious Diseases 202, no. 12 (2010): 1907-1915.

6. Coudray, Makella S., and Purnima Madhivanan. "Bacterial vaginosis—A brief synopsis of the literature." European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 245 (2020): 143-148.

7. Denning, David W., Matthew Kneale, Jack D. Sobel, and Riina Rautemaa-Richardson. "Global burden of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a systematic review." The Lancet Infectious Diseases 18, no. 11 (2018): e339-e347.

8. Dingens, Adam S., Tessa S. Fairfortune, Susan Reed, and Caroline Mitchell. "Bacterial vaginosis and adverse outcomes among full-term infants: a cohort study." BMC pregnancy and childbirth 16, no. 1 (2016): 1-8.

9. Edwards, Vonetta L., Steven B. Smith, Elias J. McComb, Jeanne Tamarelle, Bing Ma, Michael S. Humphrys, Pawel Gajer et al. "The cervicovaginal microbiota-host interaction modulates Chlamydia trachomatis infection." MBio 10, no. 4 (2019).

10. Foxman, Betsy. "Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs." The American journal of medicine 113, no. 1 (2002): 5-13.

11. Gerson, Kristin D., Clare McCarthy, Michal A. Elovitz, Jacques Ravel, Mary D. Sammel, and Heather H. Burris. "Cervicovaginal microbial communities deficient in Lactobacillus species are associated with second trimester short cervix." American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 222, no. 5 (2020): 491-e1.

12. Gorgos, Linda M., Laura K. Sycuro, Sujatha Srinivasan, Tina L. Fiedler, Martin T. Morgan, Jennifer E. Balkus, R. Scott McClelland, David N. Fredricks, and Jeanne M. Marrazzo. "Relationship of specific bacteria in the cervical and vaginal microbiotas with cervicitis." Sexually transmitted diseases 42, no. 9 (2015): 475.

13. Gosmann, Christina, Melis N. Anahtar, Scott A. Handley, Mara Farcasanu, Galeb Abu-Ali, Brittany A. Bowman, Nikita Padavattan et al. "Lactobacillus-deficient cervicovaginal bacterial communities are associated with increased HIV acquisition in young South African women." Immunity 46, no. 1 (2017): 29-37.

14. Haggerty, Catherine L., Patricia A. Totten, Gong Tang, Sabina G. Astete, Michael J. Ferris, Johana Norori, Debra C. Bass, David H. Martin, Brandie D. Taylor, and Roberta B. Ness. "Identification of novel microbes associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility." Sexually transmitted infections 92, no. 6 (2016): 441-446.

15. Koumans, Emilia H., Maya Sternberg, Carol Bruce, Geraldine McQuillan, Juliette Kendrick, Madeline Sutton, and Lauri E. Markowitz. "The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the United States, 2001–2004; associations with symptoms, sexual behaviors, and reproductive health." Sexually transmitted diseases 34, no. 11 (2007): 864-869.

16. Leitich, Harald, and Herbert Kiss. "Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome." Best practice & research Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology 21, no. 3 (2007): 375-390.

17. Lewis, Felicia MT, Kyle T. Bernstein, and Sevgi O. Aral. "Vaginal microbiome and its relationship to behavior, sexual health, and sexually transmitted diseases." Obstetrics and gynecology 129, no. 4 (2017): 643.

18. Lin, Chia-Ying, Chiao-Yun Lin, Yuan-Ming Yeh, Lan-Yan Yang, Yun-Shien Lee, Angel Chao, Chia-Yin Chin, An-Shine Chao, and Chia-Yu Yang. "Severe preeclampsia is associated with a higher relative abundance of Prevotella bivia in the vaginal microbiota." Scientific reports 10, no. 1 (2020): 1-13.

19. MacPhee, Roderick A., Wayne L. Miller, Gregory B. Gloor, John K. McCormick, Jo-Anne Hammond, Jeremy P. Burton, and Gregor Reid. "Influence of the vaginal microbiota on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production by Staphylococcus aureus." Applied and environmental microbiology 79, no. 6 (2013): 1835-1842.

20. Ravel, Jacques, Pawel Gajer, Zaid Abdo, G. Maria Schneider, Sara SK Koenig, Stacey L. McCulle, Shara Karlebach et al. "Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, no. Supplement 1 (2011): 4680-4687.

21. Torcia, Maria Gabriella. "Interplay among vaginal microbiome, immune response and sexually transmitted viral infections." International journal of molecular sciences 20, no. 2 (2019): 266.

22. Tortelli, Brett A., Warren G. Lewis, Jenifer E. Allsworth, Nadum Member-Meneh, Lynne R. Foster, Hilary E. Reno, Jeffrey F. Peipert, Justin C. Fay, and Amanda L. Lewis. "Associations between the vaginal microbiome and Candida colonization in women of reproductive age." American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 222, no. 5 (2020): 471-e1.

23. van de Wijgert, Janneke HHM, and Vicky Jespers. "The global health impact of vaginal dysbiosis." Research in microbiology 168, no. 9-10 (2017): 859-864.

24. Van Oostrum, Noortje, Petra De Sutter, Joris Meys, and Hans Verstraelen. "Risks associated with bacterial vaginosis in infertility patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Human reproduction 28, no. 7 (2013): 1809-1815.

25. Walther-António, Marina RS, Jun Chen, Francesco Multinu, Alexis Hokenstad, Tammy J. Distad, E. Heidi Cheek, Gary L. Keeney et al. "Potential contribution of the uterine microbiome in the development of endometrial cancer." Genome medicine 8, no. 1 (2016): 1-15.

26. Wiesenfeld, Harold C., Sharon L. Hillier, Marijane A. Krohn, Daniel V. Landers, and Richard L. Sweet. "Bacterial vaginosis is a strong predictor of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection." Clinical Infectious Diseases 36, no. 5 (2003): 663-668.

27. Yang, Xi, Miao Da, Wenyuan Zhang, Quan Qi, Chun Zhang, and Shuwen Han. "Role of Lactobacillus in cervical cancer." Cancer management and research 10 (2018): 1219.

28. Younes, Jessica A., Gregor Reid, Henny C. van der Mei, and Henk J. Busscher. "Lactobacilli require physical contact to reduce staphylococcal TSST-1 secretion and vaginal epithelial inflammatory response." Pathogens and disease 74, no. 4 (2016).