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Does Menopause Increase the Risk of UTIs?

Learn how menopause affects the vaginal microbiome, why it can make you more prone to UTIs, and what you can do to prevent it.
Read Time — 3 minutes
Words by Olivia Cassano; Edited by Dana Alloy; Medically reviewed by Dr. Christine Vo, M.D.

Highlights from this article: 

  • Chronic UTIs are more common in perimenopause and menopause. 
  • Changes in estrogen can impact your vaginal pH.
  • As levels of estrogen decrease, the lining of your vagina, urethra, and bladder become thinner and more susceptible to harmful bacteria like E. coli
  • Weakening of the pelvic floor is common with age and can increase the risk of UTIs.

If there’s one thing all people with vaginas can relate to, regardless of age, it’s that urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the worst thing ever. And if you’re currently going through menopause, you might know firsthand that, unfortunately, UTIs are a lot more common in menopause. 

Urinary tract infections can affect your bladder (this is called cystitis), urethra (urethritis), or kidneys (pyelonephritis). They’re primarily caused by a bacteria called E. coliwhich normally lives peacefully in your colon — entering your urinary tract. 

Sex is often to blame for UTIs in younger women but in perimenopause and menopause, the culprits can also be hormonal and physical changes such as lower levels of the hormone estrogen, thinning of the vaginal tissue, and incontinence. 

Let’s dive into the reasons why menopause can increase your risk of UTIs and what you can do to prevent it. 

Why menopause makes you more prone to UTIs

There are two main reasons why menopause increases your risk of UTIs: changes to your vaginal microbiome and issues with the pelvic floor. Both are the result of decreasing levels of estrogen.

How menopause affects the vaginal microbiome 

Estrogen plays a very important role in the vaginal microbiome. Estrogen causes changes in the vagina that allows protective bacteria like lactobacilli to thrive. Specifically it helps your body produce glycogen -  a food source - for beneficial bacteria called lactobacilli. These bacteria keep vaginal pH acidic, and prevent the overgrowth of potential pathogens like E. coli.

In perimenopause (the phase leading up to menopause), estrogen levels start declining. This also means that food for lactobacilli decreases, so their numbers start to decline. This change in your vaginal microbiome results in a change in your vaginal pH, leaving your urinary system more vulnerable to harmful bacteria and increasing the risk of UTIs.

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Estrogen can also affect the health of your pelvic organs. Lower levels of estrogen in perimenopause and menopause can thin the lining of your vagina and urinary tract, making it more susceptible to harmful bacteria. 

How menopause affects the pelvic floor

Your pelvic floor acts like a sling that supports your uterus, bladder, urethra, and bowels to help them function efficiently. But a weak pelvic floor can cause bladder prolapse, where the bladder drops and bulges into the vaginal wall. This also makes it harder to empty your bladder fully, increasing your risk for UTIs

The urine that isn’t expelled hangs around in your bladder and becomes a breeding ground for harmful bacteria, giving them a chance to colonize (instead of being flushed out). 

What are the signs of a UTI? 

Common symptoms of a UTI include: 

  • Discomfort, stinging or burning when you pee 
  • A frequent, sudden need to pee 
  • A constant feeling that you need to pass urine, even when your bladder is empty
  • Pain in your lower abdomen
  • Cloudy, strong-smelling urine that may have blood in it

How to prevent UTIs in menopause  

Aside from the classic preventative methods — drinking plenty of water, wiping front to back, peeing after sex — you can further help to reduce the chance of getting a UTI in menopause with a few more solutions: 

Referenced in this article:

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